# Dynamic Clonal Selection #

## Name #

Dynamic Clonal Selection (DCS)

## Taxonomy #

Dynamic Clonal Selection is a population-based metaheuristic optimization technique that falls under the category of Artificial Immune Systems within the field of Biologically Inspired Computation. It is closely related to the Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA) and the Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS).

- Computational Intelligence
- Biologically Inspired Computation
- Artificial Immune Systems
- Clonal Selection Algorithms
- Dynamic Clonal Selection (DCS)

- Clonal Selection Algorithms

- Artificial Immune Systems

- Biologically Inspired Computation

## Strategy #

Dynamic Clonal Selection is a population-based optimization algorithm inspired by the adaptive immune response in biological systems. The algorithm maintains a population of candidate solutions, referred to as antibodies, which are iteratively refined to search for optimal solutions to a given problem.

### Clonal Selection and Expansion #

The core of the DCS algorithm lies in the clonal selection and expansion process. During each iteration, antibodies are selected based on their affinity (fitness) to the problem at hand. Selected antibodies undergo clonal expansion, producing a number of clones proportional to their affinity. This mechanism allows for the exploration of promising regions in the search space.

### Affinity Maturation #

After clonal expansion, the clones undergo affinity maturation, which consists of two main processes: hypermutation and receptor editing. Hypermutation introduces random changes to the clones, with the mutation rate inversely proportional to the affinity of the parent antibody. This allows for local search around high-affinity solutions. Receptor editing, on the other hand, introduces more substantial changes to a subset of clones, promoting diversity and exploration of new regions in the search space.

### Population Update #

Following affinity maturation, the clones are evaluated, and their affinities are compared to those of the original antibodies. If a clone has a higher affinity than its parent antibody, it replaces the parent in the population. Additionally, low-affinity antibodies are replaced by randomly generated antibodies to maintain diversity and prevent premature convergence.

### Dynamic Parameter Adjustment #

A key feature of DCS is the dynamic adjustment of algorithm parameters based on the progress of the search. The clonal expansion rate, hypermutation rate, and the proportion of clones undergoing receptor editing are adapted throughout the optimization process. This dynamic behavior allows the algorithm to balance exploration and exploitation, enhancing its ability to escape local optima and converge towards global optimal solutions.

## Procedure #

### Data Structures #

- Antibody: Represents a candidate solution to the optimization problem. Each antibody has an associated affinity value indicating its fitness.
- Population: A collection of antibodies that evolves over the course of the optimization process.

### Parameters #

- Population Size: The number of antibodies in the population.
- Clonal Expansion Rate: Determines the number of clones generated for each selected antibody.
- Hypermutation Rate: Controls the degree of mutation applied to clones during affinity maturation.
- Receptor Editing Rate: Specifies the proportion of clones undergoing receptor editing.
- Replacement Threshold: Determines the affinity threshold for replacing low-affinity antibodies.

### Algorithm Steps #

- Initialize the population with random antibodies.
- Evaluate the affinity of each antibody in the population.
- While the stopping criteria are not met, repeat steps 4-10.
- Select a subset of high-affinity antibodies for clonal expansion.
- Generate clones for each selected antibody, with the number of clones proportional to the antibody’s affinity.
- Perform affinity maturation on the clones:
- Apply hypermutation to each clone, with the mutation rate inversely proportional to the parent antibody’s affinity.
- Perform receptor editing on a subset of clones.

- Evaluate the affinity of the clones.
- Compare the affinity of each clone to its parent antibody. If a clone has a higher affinity, replace the parent antibody with the clone.
- Replace low-affinity antibodies in the population with randomly generated antibodies.
- Dynamically adjust algorithm parameters (clonal expansion rate, hypermutation rate, receptor editing rate) based on the progress of the search.
- Return the antibody with the highest affinity as the best solution found.

## Considerations #

### Advantages #

- Adapts to the search landscape: DCS dynamically adjusts its parameters based on the progress of the search, allowing it to adapt to the characteristics of the problem landscape.
- Balances exploration and exploitation: The combination of clonal selection, hypermutation, and receptor editing enables DCS to effectively explore the search space while also exploiting promising regions.
- Maintains population diversity: The replacement of low-affinity antibodies with randomly generated ones helps maintain diversity and prevents premature convergence.

### Disadvantages #

- Parameter sensitivity: The performance of DCS can be sensitive to the initial values of its parameters, requiring careful tuning for each problem.
- Computational complexity: The clonal expansion and affinity maturation processes can be computationally expensive, especially for large population sizes and high-dimensional problems.
- Lack of theoretical convergence guarantees: DCS, like many metaheuristic algorithms, does not provide theoretical guarantees of convergence to the global optimum.

## Heuristics #

### Parameter Setting #

- Population size: Set the population size based on the complexity of the problem. A larger population can explore more of the search space but increases computational cost.
- Clonal expansion rate: Start with a high clonal expansion rate to prioritize exploration and gradually decrease it over the course of the optimization to focus on exploitation.
- Hypermutation rate: Set the initial hypermutation rate based on the expected level of diversity needed. Adapt the rate dynamically based on the progress of the search.
- Receptor editing rate: Use a low receptor editing rate (e.g., 0.1-0.2) to introduce diversity without disrupting the search process too much.
- Replacement threshold: Set the replacement threshold to strike a balance between maintaining high-affinity solutions and promoting diversity.

### Problem Representation #

- Encode the problem-specific information within the antibody representation, ensuring that the representation allows for meaningful mutation and evaluation operations.
- If possible, use a representation that facilitates the application of problem-specific knowledge and constraints.

### Affinity Function Design #

- Design an affinity function that accurately measures the quality of solutions in the context of the optimization problem.
- Ensure that the affinity function is computationally efficient to evaluate, as it will be called frequently during the optimization process.

### Stopping Criteria #

- Define suitable stopping criteria based on the problem requirements, such as a maximum number of iterations, a target affinity value, or a measure of convergence.
- Monitor the progress of the search and consider early stopping if the algorithm appears to have stagnated or if the computational budget is limited.

### Hybridization #

- Consider hybridizing DCS with other optimization techniques, such as local search methods or other metaheuristics, to improve its performance on specific problems.
- Incorporate problem-specific heuristics or operators to enhance the search process and exploit domain knowledge.